1 Samuel 11

Saul Chosen to Be King

There was a man of Benjamin whose name was fKish, the son of Abiel, son of Zeror, son of Becorath, son of Aphiah, a Benjaminite, a man of wealth. And he had a son whose name was Saul, ga handsome young man. There was not a man among the people of Israel more handsome than he. hFrom his shoulders upward he was taller than any of the people.

Now the donkeys of Kish, Saul's father, were lost. So Kish said to Saul his son, Take one of the young men with you, and arise, go and look for the donkeys. And he passed through ithe hill country of Ephraim and passed through the land of jShalishah, but they did not find them. And they passed through the land of Shaalim, but they were not there. Then they passed through the land of Benjamin, but did not find them.

When they came to the land of Zuph, Saul said to his servant1 who was with him, Come, let us go back, klest my father cease to care about the donkeys and become anxious about us. But he said to him, Behold, there is la man of God in this city, and he is a man who is held in honor; mall that he says comes true. So now let us go there. Perhaps he can tell us the way we should go. Then Saul said to his servant, But if we go, nwhat can we bring the man? For the bread in our sacks is gone, and there is no present to bring to the man of God. What do we have? The servant answered Saul again, Here, I have with me a quarter of a shekel2 of silver, and I will give it to the man of God to tell us our way. (Formerly in Israel, when a man owent to inquire of God, he said, Come, let us go to the seer, for today's prophet was formerly called a seer.) 10 And Saul said to his servant, Well said; come, let us go. So they went to the city where the man of God was.

11 As they went up the hill to the city, pthey met young women coming out to draw water and said to them, Is the seer here? 12 They answered, He is; behold, he is just ahead of you. Hurry. He has come just now to the city, because the people qhave a sacrifice today on rthe high place. 13 As soon as you enter the city you will find him, before he goes up to the high place to eat. For the people will not eat till he comes, since he must bless the sacrifice; afterward those who are invited will eat. Now go up, for you will meet him immediately. 14 So they went up to the city. As they were entering the city, they saw Samuel coming out toward them on his way up to the high place.

15 Now the day before Saul came, sthe Lord had trevealed to Samuel: 16 Tomorrow about this time I will send to you a man from the land of Benjamin, uand you shall anoint him to be prince3 over my people Israel. He shall save my people from the hand of the Philistines. vFor I have seen4 my people, because their cry has come to me. 17 When Samuel saw Saul, the Lord told him, wHere is the man of whom I spoke to you! He it is who shall restrain my people. 18 Then Saul approached Samuel in the gate and said, Tell me where is the house of the seer? 19 Samuel answered Saul, I am the seer. Go up before me to the high place, for today you shall eat with me, and in the morning I will let you go and will tell you all that is on your mind. 20 xAs for your donkeys that were lost three days ago, do not set your mind on them, for they have been found. And for whom is all that is desirable in Israel? Is it not for you and for all your father's house? 21 Saul answered, Am I not a Benjaminite, yfrom the least of the tribes of Israel? zAnd is not my clan the humblest of all the clans of the tribe of Benjamin? Why then have you spoken to me in this way?

22 Then Samuel took Saul and his young man and brought them into the hall and gave them a place at the head of those who had been invited, who were about thirty persons. 23 And Samuel said to the cook, Bring the portion I gave you, of which I said to you, Put it aside. 24 So the cook took up athe leg and what was on it and set them before Saul. And Samuel said, See, what was kept is set before you. Eat, because it was kept for you until the hour appointed, that you might eat with the guests.5

So Saul ate with Samuel that day. 25 And when they came down from the high place into the city, a bed was spread for Saul bon the roof, and he lay down to sleep.6 26 Then at the break of dawn7 Samuel called to Saul on the roof, Up, that I may send you on your way. So Saul arose, and both he and Samuel went out into the street.

27 As they were going down to the outskirts of the city, Samuel said to Saul, Tell the servant to pass on before us, and when he has passed on, stop here yourself for a while, that I may make known to you the word of God.

Saul Anointed King

10 cThen Samuel took a flask of oil and poured it on his head dand kissed him and said, Has not the Lord anointed you to be prince1 over ehis people Israel? And you shall reign over the people of the Lord and you will save them from the hand of their surrounding enemies. And this shall be the sign to you that the Lord has anointed you to be prince2 over his heritage. When you depart from me today, you will meet two men by fRachel's tomb in the territory of Benjamin at Zelzah, and they will say to you, gThe donkeys that you went to seek are found, and now hyour father has ceased to care about the donkeys and is anxious about you, saying, What shall I do about my son? Then you shall go on from there farther and come to the ioak of Tabor. Three men jgoing up kto God at Bethel will meet you there, one carrying three young goats, another carrying three loaves of bread, and another carrying a skin of wine. And they will greet you and give you two loaves of bread, which you shall accept from their hand. After that you shall come to lGibeath-elohim,3 mwhere there is a garrison of the Philistines. And there, as soon as you come to the city, you will meet a group of prophets coming down nfrom the high place with harp, tambourine, flute, and lyre before them, prophesying. oThen the Spirit of the Lord will rush upon you, pand you will prophesy with them and be turned into another man. Now when qthese signs meet you, do what your hand finds to do, rfor God is with you. Then go down before me sto Gilgal. And behold, I am coming down to you to offer burnt offerings and tto sacrifice peace offerings. uSeven days you shall wait, until I come to you and show you what you shall do.

When he turned his back to leave Samuel, God gave him another heart. And all these signs came to pass that day. 10 When they came to vGibeah,4 behold, a group of prophets met him, oand the Spirit of God rushed upon him, and he prophesied among them. 11 And when all who knew him previously saw how he prophesied with the prophets, the people said to one another, What has come over the son of Kish? wIs Saul also among the prophets? 12 And a man of the place answered, xAnd who is their father? Therefore it became a proverb, wIs Saul also among the prophets? 13 When he had finished prophesying, he came to the high place.

14 ySaul's uncle said to him and to his servant, Where did you go? And he said, zTo seek the donkeys. And when we saw they were not to be found, we went to Samuel. 15 And Saul's uncle said, Please tell me what Samuel said to you. 16 And Saul said to his uncle, aHe told us plainly that the donkeys had been found. But about the matter of the kingdom, of which Samuel had spoken, he did not tell him anything.

Saul Proclaimed King

17 Now Samuel called the people together bto the Lord cat Mizpah. 18 And he said to the people of Israel, dThus says the Lord, the God of Israel, I brought up Israel out of Egypt, and I delivered you from the hand of the Egyptians and from the hand of all the kingdoms that were oppressing you. 19 eBut today you have rejected your God, who saves you from all your calamities and your distresses, and you have said to him, Set a king over us. Now therefore fpresent yourselves before the Lord by your tribes and by your thousands.

20 Then Samuel gbrought all the tribes of Israel near, and the tribe of Benjamin was taken by lot. 21 He brought the tribe of Benjamin near by its clans, and the clan of the Matrites was taken by lot;5 and Saul the son of Kish was taken by lot. But when they sought him, he could not be found. 22 hSo they inquired again of the Lord, Is there a man still to come? and the Lord said, Behold, he has hidden himself among the baggage. 23 Then they ran and took him from there. And when he stood among the people, ihe was taller than any of the people from his shoulders upward. 24 And Samuel said to all the people, Do you see him jwhom the Lord has chosen? There is none like him among all the people. And all the people shouted, kLong live the king!

25 Then Samuel told the people lthe rights and duties of the kingship, and he wrote them in a book and laid it up before the Lord. Then Samuel sent all the people away, each one to his home. 26 Saul also went to his home mat Gibeah, and with him went men of valor whose hearts God had touched. 27 But some nworthless fellows said, How can this man save us? And they despised him and brought him no present. But he held his peace.

Saul Defeats the Ammonites

11 oThen Nahash the Ammonite went up and besieged pJabesh-gilead, and all the men of Jabesh said to Nahash, qMake a treaty with us, and we will serve you. But Nahash the Ammonite said to them, On this condition I will make a treaty with you, rthat I gouge out all your right eyes, and thus sbring disgrace on all Israel. The elders of Jabesh said to him, Give us seven days' respite that we may send messengers through all the territory of Israel. Then, if there is no one to save us, we will give ourselves up to you. When the messengers came to tGibeah of Saul, they reported the matter in the ears of the people, uand all the people wept aloud.

Now, behold, Saul was coming from the field behind the oxen. And Saul said, What is wrong with the people, that they are weeping? So they told him the news of the men of Jabesh. vAnd the Spirit of God rushed upon Saul when he heard these words, and his anger was greatly kindled. He took a yoke of oxen wand cut them in pieces and sent them throughout all the territory of Israel by the hand of the messengers, saying, xWhoever does not come out after Saul and Samuel, so shall it be done to his oxen! Then the dread of the Lord fell upon the people, and they came out yas one man. When he mustered them at zBezek, athe people of Israel were three hundred thousand, and the men of Judah thirty thousand. And they said to the messengers who had come, Thus shall you say to the men of Jabesh-gilead: Tomorrow, by the time the sun is hot, you shall have bsalvation. When the messengers came and told the men of Jabesh, they were glad. 10 Therefore the men of Jabesh said, cTomorrow we will give ourselves up to you, and you may do to us whatever seems good to you. 11 dAnd the next day Saul put the people ein three companies. And they came into the midst of the camp in the morning watch and struck down the Ammonites until the heat of the day. And those who survived were scattered, so that no two of them were left together.

The Kingdom Is Renewed

12 Then the people said to Samuel, fWho is it that said, Shall Saul reign over us? gBring the men, that we may put them to death. 13 But Saul said, hNot a man shall be put to death this day, for today ithe Lord has worked jsalvation in Israel. 14 Then Samuel said to the people, Come, let us go to Gilgal and there renew the kingdom. 15 So all the people went to kGilgal, and there they made Saul king lbefore the Lord in Gilgal. There mthey sacrificed peace offerings before the Lord, and there Saul and all the men of Israel rejoiced greatly.

Samuel's Farewell Address

12 And Samuel said to all Israel, Behold, I have obeyed nyour voice in all that you have said to me oand have made a king over you. And now, behold, the king pwalks before you, qand I am old and gray; and behold, my sons are with you. I have walked before you from my youth until this day. Here I am; testify against me before the Lord and before rhis anointed. sWhose ox have I taken? Or whose donkey have I taken? Or whom have I defrauded? Whom have I oppressed? Or from whose hand have I taken a bribe to blind my eyes with it? Testify against me1 and I will restore it to you. They said, You have not defrauded us or oppressed us or taken anything from any man's hand. And he said to them, The Lord is witness against you, and rhis anointed is witness this day, that you have not found anything tin my hand. And they said, He is witness.

And Samuel said to the people, uThe Lord is witness,2 who appointed Moses and Aaron and brought your fathers up out of the land of Egypt. Now therefore stand still that I may plead with you before the Lord concerning all the righteous deeds of the Lord that he performed for you and for your fathers. vWhen Jacob went into Egypt, and the Egyptians oppressed them,3 wthen your fathers cried out to the Lord and xthe Lord sent Moses and Aaron, ywho brought your fathers out of Egypt and made them dwell in this place. But zthey forgot the Lord their God. aAnd he sold them into the hand of Sisera, commander of the army of Hazor,4 band into the hand of the Philistines, cand into the hand of the king of Moab. And they fought against them. 10 dAnd they cried out to the Lord and said, We have sinned, because we have forsaken the Lord eand have served the Baals and the Ashtaroth. But now fdeliver us out of the hand of our enemies, that we may serve you. 11 And the Lord sent gJerubbaal hand Barak5 iand Jephthah and jSamuel and delivered you out of the hand of your enemies on every side, and you lived in safety. 12 And when you saw that kNahash the king of the Ammonites came against you, lyou said to me, No, but a king shall reign over us, mwhen the Lord your God was your king. 13 And now nbehold the king whom you have chosen, for whom you have asked; behold, othe Lord has set a king over you. 14 If you will pfear the Lord and serve him and obey his voice and not rebel against the commandment of the Lord, and if both you and the king who reigns over you will follow the Lord your God, it will be well. 15 But qif you will not obey the voice of the Lord, but rebel against the commandment of the Lord, then rthe hand of the Lord will be against you and syour king.6 16 Now therefore tstand still and see this great thing that the Lord will do before your eyes. 17 uIs it not wheat harvest today? vI will call upon the Lord, that he may send thunder and rain. And you shall know and see that wyour wickedness is great, which you have done in the sight of the Lord, in asking for yourselves a king. 18 So Samuel called upon the Lord, and the Lord sent thunder and rain that day, xand all the people greatly feared the Lord and Samuel.

19 And all the people said to Samuel, yPray for your servants to the Lord your God, that we may not die, for we have added to all our sins this evil, to ask for ourselves a king. 20 And Samuel said to the people, Do not be afraid; you have done all this evil. Yet zdo not turn aside from following the Lord, but serve the Lord with all your heart. 21 And zdo not turn aside after aempty things that cannot profit or deliver, for they are empty. 22 bFor the Lord will not forsake his people, cfor his great name's sake, because dit has pleased the Lord to make you a people for himself. 23 Moreover, as for me, far be it from me that I should sin against the Lord by ceasing eto pray for you, fand I will instruct you in the good and the right way. 24 gOnly fear the Lord and serve him faithfully with all your heart. For consider hwhat great things he has done for you. 25 But if you still do wickedly, iyou shall be swept away, jboth you and your king.

Saul Fights the Philistines

13 Saul lived for one year and then became king, and when he had reigned for two years over Israel,1 Saul chose three thousand men of Israel. Two thousand were with Saul in kMichmash and the hill country of Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan in lGibeah of Benjamin. The rest of the people he sent home, every man to his tent. Jonathan defeated mthe garrison of the Philistines that was nat Geba, and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul oblew the trumpet throughout all the land, saying, Let the Hebrews hear. And all Israel heard it said that Saul had defeated the garrison of the Philistines, and also that Israel had become a stench to the Philistines. And the people were called out to join Saul at Gilgal.

And the Philistines mustered to fight with Israel, thirty thousand chariots and six thousand horsemen and troops plike the sand on the seashore in multitude. They came up and encamped in Michmash, to the east of qBeth-aven. When the men of Israel saw that they were in trouble (for the people were hard pressed), the people hid themselves rin caves and in holes and in rocks and in tombs and in cisterns, and some Hebrews crossed the fords of the Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead. Saul was still at Gilgal, and all the people followed him trembling.

Saul's Unlawful Sacrifice

sHe waited seven days, the time appointed by Samuel. But Samuel did not come to Gilgal, and the people were scattering from him. So Saul said, Bring the burnt offering here to me, and the peace offerings. And he offered the burnt offering. 10 As soon as he had finished offering the burnt offering, behold, Samuel came. And Saul went out to meet him and greet him. 11 Samuel said, What have you done? And Saul said, When I saw that the people were scattering from me, and that you did not come within the days appointed, and that the Philistines had mustered at Michmash, 12 I said, Now the Philistines will come down against me at Gilgal, and I have not sought the favor of the Lord. So I forced myself, and offered the burnt offering. 13 And Samuel said to Saul, tYou have done foolishly. uYou have not kept the command of the Lord your God, with which he commanded you. For then the Lord would have established your kingdom over Israel forever. 14 But now vyour kingdom shall not continue. The Lord has sought out a man wafter his own heart, and the Lord has commanded him to be prince2 over his people, because you have not kept what the Lord commanded you. 15 And Samuel arose and went up from Gilgal. The rest of the people went up after Saul to meet the army; they went up from Gilgal3 to xGibeah of Benjamin.

And Saul numbered the people who were present with him, yabout six hundred men. 16 And Saul and Jonathan his son and the people who were present with them stayed in zGeba of Benjamin, but the Philistines encamped in Michmash. 17 And araiders came out of the camp of the Philistines in three companies. One company turned toward Ophrah, to the land of Shual; 18 another company turned toward bBeth-horon; and another company turned toward the border that looks down on the Valley of cZeboim toward the wilderness.

19 dNow there was no blacksmith to be found throughout all the land of Israel, for the Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make themselves swords or spears. 20 But every one of the Israelites went down to the Philistines to sharpen his plowshare, his mattock, his axe, or his sickle,4 21 and the charge was two-thirds of a shekel5 for the plowshares and for the mattocks, and a third of a shekel6 for sharpening the axes and for setting the goads.7 22 So on the day of the battle ethere was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people with Saul and Jonathan, but Saul and Jonathan his son had them. 23 And fthe garrison of the Philistines went out to the gpass of hMichmash.