Afflictions of Assyria against Israel

The Neo-Assyrian period (935–609 B.C.) brought renewed threats from the Assyrians. God used the Assyrians to chasten wayward Israel. In Nah. 1:12 the Lord tells Judah that “Though I have afflicted you [through the Assyrians], I will afflict you no longer.”

Assyrian Ruler Reign Affliction Significance and Biblical References
Shalmaneser III 858–824 B.C. Exacted tribute from “Jehu, son of Omri” according to the Black Obelisk Defeated at Qarqar in 853 B.C. by a Syrian coalition that included “Ahab the Israelite”
Adad-nirari III 811–783 Exacted tribute from Jehoash of Israel His attacks on Damascus enabled Jehoash to recover Israelite cities lost previously to Hazael (2 Kings 13:25)
Tiglath-pileser III (Pul) 745–727 Invaded the land and exacted tribute To avoid deportation, Menahem paid tribute to Tiglath-pileser III (Pul) (2 Kings 15:19–20); Pul deported the Transjordanian tribes (2 Kings 15:29; 1 Chron. 5:26); Pul aided Ahaz of Judah against Rezin of Damascus and Pekah of Israel (2 Kings 16:5–10; 2 Chron. 28:16–21)
Shalmaneser V 727–722 Exacted tribute from Hoshea of Israel; took the northern kingdom (Israel) into exile Hoshea refused to pay tribute and sought Egypt for help, the Assyrians besieged Samaria (2 Kings 17:3–6; 18:9–12)
Sargon II 722–705 Took credit for the invasion and exile of the northern kingdom (Israel) that began under Shalmaneser V Sargon II may be the unnamed king of Assyria in 2 Kings 17:6
Sennacherib 705–681 Invaded Judah Sennacherib besieged Lachish and forced tribute from Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:13–16); he besieged Jerusalem and demanded Hezekiah’s surrender (2 Kings 18:17–19:9); the Lord delivered Jerusalem from Sennacherib (2 Kings 19:10–37). See also 2 Chronicles 32; Isaiah 36–37
Esarhaddon 681–669 Exacted tribute from Manasseh of Judah Mentioned at 2 Kings 19:37 as successor to Sennacherib (see also Ezra 4:2)
Ashurbanipal 669–627 Exacted tribute Increasing tensions from Babylonia required Assyria’s direct attention. The increased political freedom of the western city-states is reflected in the reforms instituted by Josiah