Four Kinds of Abraham’s Offspring

Offspring Explanation Examples
Natural, physical offspring Physical descendants of Abraham Ishmael, Isaac, the sons of Keturah (and by extension Esau, Jacob, etc.)
Natural, yet special offspring Physical descendants of Abraham especially tied to God’s elective and saving purposes Isaac (by extension Jacob and the entire nation of Israel)
Promised offspring The true, unique offspring of Abraham A distinctive line of offspring, starting earlier with Seth and continuing through Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Israel, and David, culminating in Jesus Christ (Gal. 3:16)
Spiritual offspring Those united with Christ (the promised offspring) Jews and Gentiles who trust in the Messiah