The Command to Leave Horeb
1 These are the words that Moses spoke to all Israel beyond the Jordan in the wilderness, in athe Arabah opposite bSuph, between cParan and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. 2 It is eleven days’ journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir to dKadesh-barnea. 3 eIn the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses spoke to the people of Israel according to all that the Lord had given him in commandment to them, 4 after fhe had defeated Sihon the king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and gOg the king of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth and in hEdrei. 5 Beyond the Jordan, iin the land of Moab, Moses undertook to explain this law, saying, 6 “The Lord our God said to us in Horeb, j‘You have stayed long enough at this mountain. 7 Turn and take your journey, and go to kthe hill country of the Amorites and to all their neighbors in athe Arabah, lin the hill country and in the lowland and in the Negeb and lby the seacoast, the land of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates. 8 See, I have set the land before you. Go in and take possession of the land that the Lord swore to your fathers, mto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give to them and to their offspring after them.’
9 “At that time nI said to you, ‘I am not able to bear you by myself. 10 The Lord your God has multiplied you, and behold, oyou are today as numerous as the stars of heaven. 11 pMay the Lord, the God of your fathers, make you a thousand times as many as you are and bless you, qas he has promised you! 12 rHow can I bear by myself the weight and burden of you and your strife? 13 sChoose for your tribes wise, understanding, and experienced men, and I will appoint them as your heads.’ 14 And you answered me, ‘The thing that you have spoken is good for us to do.’ 15 So I took the heads of your tribes, wise and experienced men, tand set them as heads over you, commanders of thousands, commanders of hundreds, commanders of fifties, commanders of tens, and officers, throughout your tribes. 16 And I charged your judges at that time, ‘Hear the cases between your brothers, and ujudge righteously between a man and his brother or the alien who is with him. 17 vYou shall not be partial in judgment. You shall hear the small and the great alike. You shall not be intimidated by anyone, for wthe judgment is God’s. And the case that is too hard for you, you shall xbring to me, and I will hear it.’ 18 And I commanded you at that time all the things that you should do.
Israel’s Refusal to Enter the Land
19 “Then we set out from Horeb and ywent through all that great and terrifying wilderness that you saw, on the way to the hill country of the Amorites, as the Lord our God commanded us. And zwe came to Kadesh-barnea. 20 And I said to you, ‘You have come to the hill country of the Amorites, which the Lord our God is giving us. 21 See, the Lord your God has set the land before you. Go up, take possession, as the Lord, the God of your fathers, has told you. aDo not fear or be dismayed.’ 22 Then all of you came near me and said, ‘Let us send men before us, that they may explore the land for us and bring us word again of the way by which we must go up and the cities into which we shall come.’ 23 The thing seemed good to me, and bI took twelve men from you, one man from each tribe. 24 And cthey turned and went up into the hill country, and came to the Valley of Eshcol and spied it out. 25 And they took in their hands some of the fruit of the land and brought it down to us, and brought us word again and said, ‘It is a good land that the Lord our God is giving us.’
26 “Yet you would not go up, but rebelled against the command of the Lord your God. 27 And dyou murmured in your tents and said, ‘Because the Lord ehated us he has brought us out of the land of Egypt, fto give us into the hand of the Amorites, to destroy us. 28 Where are we going up? gOur brothers have made our hearts melt, saying, h“The people are greater and taller than we. The cities are great and fortified up to heaven. And besides, we have seen ithe sons of the Anakim there.”’ 29 Then I said to you, ‘Do not be in dread or afraid of them. 30 The Lord your God who goes before you jwill himself fight for you, just as he did for you in Egypt before your eyes, 31 and in the wilderness, where you have seen how the Lord your God kcarried you, as a man carries his son, all the way that you went until you came to this place.’ 32 Yet in spite of this word lyou did not believe the Lord your God, 33 mwho went before you in the way nto seek you out a place to pitch your tents, in fire by night and in the cloud by day, to show you by what way you should go.
The Penalty for Israel’s Rebellion
34 “And the Lord heard your words and was angered, and he swore, 35 o‘Not one of these men of this evil generation shall see the good land that I swore to give to your fathers, 36 pexcept Caleb the son of Jephunneh. He shall see it, and to him and to his children I will give the land on which he has trodden, because he has wholly followed the Lord!’ 37 Even with me qthe Lord was angry on your account and said, ‘You also shall not go in there. 38 rJoshua the son of Nun, rwho stands before you, he shall enter. sEncourage him, for he shall cause Israel to inherit it. 39 And as for tyour little ones, who you said would become a prey, and your children, who today uhave no knowledge of good or evil, they shall go in there. And to them I will give it, and they shall possess it. 40 But as for you, vturn, and journey into the wilderness in the direction of the Red Sea.’
41 “Then you answered me, w‘We have sinned against the Lord. We ourselves will go up and fight, just as the Lord our God commanded us.’ And every one of you fastened on his weapons of war and thought it easy to go up into the hill country. 42 And the Lord said to me, x‘Say to them, Do not go up or fight, yfor I am not in your midst, lest you be defeated before your enemies.’ 43 So I spoke to you, and you would not listen; but you rebelled against the command of the Lord and zpresumptuously went up into the hill country. 44 aThen the Amorites who lived in that hill country came out against you and chased you bas bees do and beat you down in Seir as far as cHormah. 45 And you returned and wept before the Lord, but the Lord did not listen to your voice or give ear to you. 46 So dyou remained at Kadesh many days, the days that you remained there.
The Wilderness Years
2 “Then we turned and journeyed into the wilderness in the direction of the Red Sea, eas the Lord told me. And for many days we traveled around Mount Seir. 2 Then the Lord said to me, 3 ‘You have been traveling around this mountain country flong enough. Turn northward 4 and command the people, “You are about to pass through the territory of gyour brothers, the people of Esau, hwho live in Seir; and ithey will be afraid of you. So be very careful. 5 Do not contend with them, for I will not give you any of their land, no, not so much as for the sole of the foot to tread on, because hI have given Mount Seir to Esau as a possession. 6 jYou shall purchase food from them with money, that you may eat, and you shall also buy water from them with money, that you may drink. 7 For the Lord your God has blessed you in all the work of your hands. kHe knows your going through this great wilderness. lThese forty years the Lord your God has been with you. You have lacked nothing.”’ 8 So mwe went on, away from our brothers, the people of Esau, who live in Seir, away from nthe Arabah road from oElath and pEzion-geber.
“And we turned and went in the direction of the wilderness of Moab. 9 And the Lord said to me, q‘Do not harass Moab or contend with them in battle, for I will not give you any of their land for a possession, because I have given rAr to sthe people of Lot for a possession.’ 10 (tThe Emim formerly lived there, ua people great and many, and tall vas the Anakim. 11 Like the Anakim they are also counted as wRephaim, but the Moabites call them Emim. 12 xThe Horites also lived in Seir formerly, but the people of Esau dispossessed them and destroyed them from before them and settled in their place, yas Israel did to the land of their possession, which the Lord gave to them.) 13 ‘Now rise up and go over zthe brook Zered.’ So we went over zthe brook Zered. 14 And the time from our leaving aKadesh-barnea until we crossed bthe brook Zered was thirty-eight years, cuntil the entire generation, that is, the men of war, had perished from the camp, as the Lord had sworn to them. 15 For indeed the hand of the Lord was against them, to destroy them from the camp, until they had perished.
16 “So as soon as all the men of war had perished and were dead from among the people, 17 the Lord said to me, 18 ‘Today you are to cross the border of Moab at Ar. 19 And when you approach the territory of the people of Ammon, ddo not harass them or contend with them, for I will not give you any of the land of the people of Ammon as a possession, because I have given it to ethe sons of Lot for a possession.’ 20 (It is also counted as a land of fRephaim. Rephaim formerly lived there—but the Ammonites call them Zamzummim— 21 ga people great and many, and tall as the Anakim; but the Lord destroyed them before the Ammonites,1 and they dispossessed them and settled in their place, 22 as he did for the people of Esau, who live in Seir, when he destroyed hthe Horites before them and they dispossessed them and settled in their place even to this day. 23 As for ithe Avvim, who lived in villages as far as jGaza, kthe Caphtorim, who came from Caphtor, destroyed them and settled in their place.) 24 ‘Rise up, set out on your journey and lgo over the Valley of the Arnon. Behold, I have given into your hand Sihon the Amorite, king of mHeshbon, and his land. Begin to take possession, and ncontend with him in battle. 25 This day I will begin to put othe dread and fear of you on the peoples who are under the whole heaven, who shall hear the report of you and shall tremble and be in anguish because of you.’
The Defeat of King Sihon
26 “So I sent messengers from the wilderness of pKedemoth to Sihon the king of mHeshbon, qwith words of peace, saying, 27 r‘Let me pass through your land. I will go only by the road; I will turn aside neither to the right nor to the left. 28 sYou shall sell me food for money, that I may eat, and give me water for money, that I may drink. Only let me pass through on foot, 29 tas the sons of Esau who live in Seir and the Moabites who live in Ar did for me, until I go over the Jordan into the land that the Lord our God is giving to us.’ 30 But uSihon the king of mHeshbon would not let us pass by him, for the Lord your God vhardened his spirit and made his heart obstinate, that he might give him into your hand, as he is this day. 31 And the Lord said to me, ‘Behold, I have begun to give Sihon and his land over to you. Begin to take possession, that you may occupy his land.’ 32 Then wSihon came out against us, he and all his people, to battle at Jahaz. 33 And xthe Lord our God gave him over to us, and ywe defeated him and his sons and all his people. 34 And we captured all his cities at that time and devoted to destruction2 every zcity, men, women, and children. We left no survivors. 35 Only the livestock we took as spoil for ourselves, with the plunder of the cities that we captured. 36 aFrom Aroer, which is on the edge of the Valley of the Arnon, and from bthe city that is in the valley, as far as Gilead, there was not a city too high for us. cThe Lord our God gave all into our hands. 37 Only to the land of the sons of Ammon you did not draw near, that is, to all the banks of the river dJabbok and the cities of the hill country, whatever the Lord our God had forbidden us.
The Defeat of King Og
3 “Then we turned and went up the way to Bashan. And eOg the king of Bashan came out against us, he and all his people, to battle at fEdrei. 2 But the Lord said to me, ‘Do not fear him, for I have given him and all his people and his land into your hand. And you shall do to him as you did to gSihon the king of the Amorites, who lived at Heshbon.’ 3 So the Lord our God gave into our hand Og also, the king of Bashan, and all his people, hand we struck him down until he had no survivor left. 4 And we took all his cities at that time—there was not a city that we did not take from them—sixty cities, ithe whole region of Argob, the kingdom of Og in Bashan. 5 All these were cities fortified with high walls, gates, and bars, besides very many unwalled villages. 6 And jwe devoted them to destruction,1 as we did to Sihon the king of Heshbon, devoting to destruction every kcity, men, women, and children. 7 But all the livestock and the spoil of the cities we took as our plunder. 8 So we took the land at that time out of the hand of the two kings of the Amorites who were beyond the Jordan, from the Valley of the Arnon to Mount Hermon 9 (the Sidonians call lHermon mSirion, while the Amorites call it nSenir), 10 all the cities of the otableland and all Gilead and all Bashan, as far as pSalecah and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan. 11 (For qonly Og the king of Bashan was left of the remnant of rthe Rephaim. Behold, his bed was a bed of iron. Is it not in sRabbah of the Ammonites? Nine cubits2 was its length, and four cubits its breadth, according to the tcommon cubit.3)
12 “When we took possession of this land at that time, I gave to the Reubenites and the Gadites the territory beginning uat Aroer, which is on the edge of the Valley of the Arnon, and half the hill country of Gilead with vits cities. 13 wThe rest of Gilead, and all Bashan, the kingdom of Og, that is, xall the region of Argob, I gave to the half-tribe of Manasseh. (All that portion of Bashan is called the land of rRephaim. 14 yJair the Manassite took all the region of Argob, that is, Bashan, as far as the border of zthe Geshurites and the Maacathites, and called the villages aafter his own name, Havvoth-jair, as it is to this day.) 15 To Machir bI gave Gilead, 16 and to the Reubenites cand the Gadites I gave the territory from Gilead as far as the Valley of the Arnon, with the middle of the valley as a border, as far over as the river Jabbok, dthe border of the Ammonites; 17 the Arabah also, with the Jordan as the border, from eChinnereth as far as fthe Sea of the Arabah, gthe Salt Sea, under hthe slopes of Pisgah on the east.
18 “And I commanded you at that time, saying, ‘The Lord your God has given you this land to possess. iAll your men of valor shall cross over armed before your brothers, the people of Israel. 19 Only your wives, your little ones, and your livestock j(I know that you have much livestock) shall remain in the cities that I have given you, 20 kuntil the Lord gives rest to your brothers, as to you, and they also occupy the land that the Lord your God gives them beyond the Jordan. Then each of you may return to his possession which I have given you.’ 21 And I commanded lJoshua at that time, ‘Your eyes have seen all that the Lord your God has done to these two kings. So will the Lord do to all the kingdoms into which you are crossing. 22 You shall not fear them, for it is mthe Lord your God who fights for you.’
Moses Forbidden to Enter the Land
23 “And I pleaded with the Lord at that time, saying, 24 ‘O Lord God, you have only begun to show your servant nyour greatness and your mighty hand. For owhat god is there in heaven or on earth who can do such works and mighty acts as yours? 25 Please let me go over and see pthe good land beyond the Jordan, that good hill country and qLebanon.’ 26 But rthe Lord was angry with me because of you and would not listen to me. And the Lord said to me, s‘Enough from you; do not speak to me of this matter again. 27 tGo up to the top of Pisgah and lift up your eyes westward and northward and southward and eastward, and look at it with your eyes, for you shall not go over this Jordan. 28 But ucharge Joshua, and encourage and strengthen him, for he shall go over at the head of this people, and he shall put them in possession of the land that you shall see.’ 29 So we remained in vthe valley opposite Beth-peor.
Moses Commands Obedience
4 “And now, O Israel, listen to wthe statutes and the rules1 that I am teaching you, and do them, xthat you may live, and go in and take possession of the land that the Lord, the God of your fathers, is giving you. 2 yYou shall not add to the word that I command you, nor take from it, that you may keep the commandments of the Lord your God that I command you. 3 Your eyes have seen what the Lord did zat Baal-peor, for the Lord your God destroyed from among you all the men who followed the Baal of Peor. 4 But you who held fast to the Lord your God are all alive today. 5 See, I have taught you statutes and rules, as the Lord my God commanded me, that you should do them in the land that you are entering to take possession of it. 6 aKeep them and do them, for bthat will be your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples, who, when they hear all these statutes, will say, ‘Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.’ 7 For cwhat great nation is there that has da god so near to it as the Lord our God is to us, whenever we call upon him? 8 And what great nation is there, that has statutes and rules so erighteous as all this law that I set before you today?
9 f“Only take care, and gkeep your soul diligently, lest you forget the things that your eyes have seen, and lest they depart from your heart all the days of your life. hMake them known to your children and your children’s children— 10 how on ithe day that you stood before the Lord your God at Horeb, the Lord said to me, j‘Gather the people to me, that I may let them hear my words, kso that they may learn to fear lme all the days that they live on the earth, and that they may teach their children so.’ 11 And myou came near and stood at the foot of the mountain, while nthe mountain burned with fire to the heart of heaven, wrapped in darkness, cloud, and gloom. 12 Then othe Lord spoke to you out of the midst of the fire. You heard the sound of words, pbut saw no form; qthere was only a voice. 13 rAnd he declared to you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, that is, sthe Ten Commandments,2 tand he wrote them on two tablets of stone. 14 And uthe Lord commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and rules, that you might do them in the land that you are going over to possess.
15 v“Therefore watch yourselves very carefully. Since wyou saw no form on the day that the Lord spoke to you at Horeb out of the midst of the fire, 16 beware xlest you act corruptly yby making a carved image for yourselves, in the form of any figure, zthe likeness of male or female, 17 the likeness of any animal that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged bird that flies in the air, 18 the likeness of anything that creeps on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the water under the earth. 19 And beware lest you raise your eyes to heaven, and when you see athe sun and the moon and the stars, ball the host of heaven, you be drawn away and bow down to them and serve them, things that the Lord your God has allotted to all the peoples under the whole heaven. 20 But the Lord has taken you and cbrought you out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt, dto be a people of his own inheritance, as you are this day. 21 Furthermore, ethe Lord was angry with me because of you, and he swore that I should not cross the Jordan, and that I should not enter the good land that the Lord your God is giving you for an inheritance. 22 For I must die in this land; fI must not go over the Jordan. But you shall go over and take possession of gthat good land. 23 hTake care, lest you forget the covenant of the Lord your God, which he made with you, and imake a carved image, the form of anything that the Lord your God has forbidden you. 24 For jthe Lord your God is a consuming fire, ka jealous God.
25 “When you father children and children’s children, and have grown old in the land, lif you act corruptly by making a carved image in the form of anything, and mby doing what is evil in the sight of the Lord your God, so as to provoke him to anger, 26 I ncall heaven and earth to witness against you today, that you will soon utterly perish from the land that you are going over the Jordan to possess. You will not live long in it, but will be utterly destroyed. 27 And the Lord owill scatter you among the peoples, pand you will be left few in number among the nations where the Lord will drive you. 28 And qthere you will serve gods of wood and stone, the work of human hands, rthat neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell. 29 sBut from there you will seek the Lord your God and you will find him, if you search after him with all your heart and with all your soul. 30 When you are in tribulation, and all these things come upon you tin the latter days, you will return to the Lord your God and obey his voice. 31 For the Lord your God is ua merciful God. vHe will not leave you or destroy you or forget the covenant with your fathers that he swore to them.
The Lord Alone Is God
32 “For wask now of the days that are past, which were before you, since the day that God created man on the earth, and ask from one end of heaven to the other, whether such a great thing as this has ever happened or was ever heard of. 33 xDid any people ever hear the voice of a god speaking out of the midst of the fire, as you have heard, and still live? 34 Or has any god ever attempted to go and take a nation for himself from the midst of another nation, by trials, yby signs, by wonders, and zby war, aby a mighty hand and ban outstretched arm, and by great deeds of terror, all of which the Lord your God did for you in Egypt before your eyes? 35 To you it was shown, cthat you might know that the Lord is God; dthere is no other besides him. 36 eOut of heaven he let you hear his voice, that he might discipline you. And on earth he let you see his great fire, and xyou heard his words out of the midst of the fire. 37 And because fhe loved your fathers and chose their offspring after them3 and brought you out of Egypt gwith his own presence, by his great power, 38 hdriving out before you nations greater and mightier than you, to bring you in, to give you their land for an inheritance, as it is this day, 39 know therefore today, and lay it to your heart, that ithe Lord is God in heaven above and on the earth beneath; jthere is no other. 40 kTherefore you shall keep his statutes and his commandments, which I command you today, lthat it may go well with you and with your children after you, and that you may prolong your days in the land that the Lord your God is giving you for all time.”
Cities of Refuge
41 Then Moses mset apart three cities in the east beyond the Jordan, 42 that nthe manslayer might flee there, anyone who kills his neighbor unintentionally, without being at enmity with him in time past; he may flee to one of these cities and save his life: 43 oBezer in the wilderness on the ptableland for the Reubenites, Ramoth in Gilead for the Gadites, and Golan in Bashan for the Manassites.
Introduction to the Law
44 This is the law that Moses set before the people of Israel. 45 These are the testimonies, the statutes, and the rules, which Moses spoke to the people of Israel when they came out of Egypt, 46 beyond the Jordan qin the valley opposite Beth-peor, in the land of Sihon the king of the Amorites, who lived at Heshbon, rwhom Moses and the people of Israel defeated when they came out of Egypt. 47 And they took possession of his land and the land sof Og, the king of Bashan, the two kings of the Amorites, who lived to the east beyond the Jordan; 48 tfrom Aroer, which is on the edge of the Valley of the Arnon, as far as Mount uSirion4 (that is, vHermon), 49 together with all the Arabah on the east side of the Jordan as far as wthe Sea of the Arabah, under the slopes of Pisgah.
The Ten Commandments
5 And Moses summoned all Israel and said to them, “Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the rules that I speak in your hearing today, and you shall learn them and be careful to do them. 2 xThe Lord our God made a covenant with us in Horeb. 3 yNot with our fathers did the Lord make this covenant, but with us, who are all of us here alive today. 4 The Lord spoke with you zface to face at the mountain, out of the midst of the fire, 5 awhile I stood between the Lord and you at that time, to declare to you the word of the Lord. For byou were afraid because of the fire, and you did not go up into the mountain. He said:
6 c“‘I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.
7 “‘You shall have no other gods before1 me.
8 “‘You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 9 You shall not bow down to them or serve them; for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, 10 but showing steadfast love to dthousands2 of those who love me and keep my commandments.
11 “‘You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.
12 “‘Observe the Sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the Lord your God commanded you. 13 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 14 but ethe seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter or your male servant or your female servant, or your ox or your donkey or any of your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates, fthat your male servant and your female servant may rest as well as you. 15 gYou shall remember that you were a slave3 in the land of Egypt, and the Lord your God brought you out from there hwith a mighty hand and an outstretched arm. Therefore the Lord your God commanded you to keep the Sabbath day.
16 “‘Honor your father and your mother, as the Lord your God commanded you, ithat your days may be long, and that it may go well with you in the land that the Lord your God is giving you.
18 j“‘And you shall not commit adultery.
19 “‘And you shall not steal.
20 “‘And you shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
21 “‘And you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife. And you shall not desire your neighbor’s house, his field, or his male servant, or his female servant, his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor’s.’
22 “These words the Lord spoke to all your assembly kat the mountain out of the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the thick darkness, with a loud voice; and he added no more. And lhe wrote them on two tablets of stone and gave them to me. 23 And mas soon as you heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, while the mountain was burning with fire, you came near to me, all the heads of your tribes, and your elders. 24 And you said, ‘Behold, the Lord our God has shown us his glory and ngreatness, and owe have heard his voice out of the midst of the fire. This day we have seen God speak with man, and man pstill live. 25 Now therefore why should we die? For this great fire will consume us. qIf we hear the voice of the Lord our God any more, we shall die. 26 pFor who is there of all flesh, that has heard the voice of the living God speaking out of the midst of fire as we have, and has still lived? 27 Go near and hear all that the Lord our God will say, and rspeak to us all that the Lord our God will speak to you, and we will hear and do it.’
28 “And the Lord heard your words, when you spoke to me. And the Lord said to me, ‘I have heard the words of this people, which they have spoken to you. sThey are right in all that they have spoken. 29 tOh that they had such a heart as this always, to fear me and to keep all my commandments, uthat it might go well with them and with their descendants5 forever! 30 Go and say to them, “Return to your tents.” 31 But you, stand here by me, and vI will tell you the whole commandment and the statutes and the rules that you shall teach them, that they may do them in the land that I am giving them to possess.’ 32 You shall be careful therefore to do as the Lord your God has commanded you. wYou shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left. 33 xYou shall walk in all the way that the Lord your God has commanded you, that you may live, and ythat it may go well with you, and that you may live long in the land that you shall possess.