1 Samuel 13–15; Psalm 86

Saul Fights the Philistines

13 Saul lived for one year and then became king, and when he had reigned for two years over Israel,1 Saul chose three thousand men of Israel. Two thousand were with Saul in kMichmash and the hill country of Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan in lGibeah of Benjamin. The rest of the people he sent home, every man to his tent. Jonathan defeated mthe garrison of the Philistines that was nat Geba, and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul oblew the trumpet throughout all the land, saying, Let the Hebrews hear. And all Israel heard it said that Saul had defeated the garrison of the Philistines, and also that Israel had become a stench to the Philistines. And the people were called out to join Saul at Gilgal.

And the Philistines mustered to fight with Israel, thirty thousand chariots and six thousand horsemen and troops plike the sand on the seashore in multitude. They came up and encamped in Michmash, to the east of qBeth-aven. When the men of Israel saw that they were in trouble (for the people were hard pressed), the people hid themselves rin caves and in holes and in rocks and in tombs and in cisterns, and some Hebrews crossed the fords of the Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead. Saul was still at Gilgal, and all the people followed him trembling.

Saul’s Unlawful Sacrifice

sHe waited seven days, the time appointed by Samuel. But Samuel did not come to Gilgal, and the people were scattering from him. So Saul said, Bring the burnt offering here to me, and the peace offerings. And he offered the burnt offering. 10 As soon as he had finished offering the burnt offering, behold, Samuel came. And Saul went out to meet him and greet him. 11 Samuel said, What have you done? And Saul said, When I saw that the people were scattering from me, and that you did not come within the days appointed, and that the Philistines had mustered at Michmash, 12 I said, Now the Philistines will come down against me at Gilgal, and I have not sought the favor of the Lord. So I forced myself, and offered the burnt offering. 13 And Samuel said to Saul, tYou have done foolishly. uYou have not kept the command of the Lord your God, with which he commanded you. For then the Lord would have established your kingdom over Israel forever. 14 But now vyour kingdom shall not continue. The Lord has sought out a man wafter his own heart, and the Lord has commanded him to be prince2 over his people, because you have not kept what the Lord commanded you. 15 And Samuel arose and went up from Gilgal. The rest of the people went up after Saul to meet the army; they went up from Gilgal3 to xGibeah of Benjamin.

And Saul numbered the people who were present with him, yabout six hundred men. 16 And Saul and Jonathan his son and the people who were present with them stayed in zGeba of Benjamin, but the Philistines encamped in Michmash. 17 And araiders came out of the camp of the Philistines in three companies. One company turned toward Ophrah, to the land of Shual; 18 another company turned toward bBeth-horon; and another company turned toward the border that looks down on the Valley of cZeboim toward the wilderness.

19 dNow there was no blacksmith to be found throughout all the land of Israel, for the Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make themselves swords or spears. 20 But every one of the Israelites went down to the Philistines to sharpen his plowshare, his mattock, his axe, or his sickle,4 21 and the charge was two-thirds of a shekel5 for the plowshares and for the mattocks, and a third of a shekel6 for sharpening the axes and for setting the goads.7 22 So on the day of the battle ethere was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people with Saul and Jonathan, but Saul and Jonathan his son had them. 23 And fthe garrison of the Philistines went out to the gpass of hMichmash.

Jonathan Defeats the Philistines

14 One day Jonathan the son of Saul said to the young man who carried his armor, Come, let us go over to the Philistine garrison on the other side. But he did not tell his father. Saul was staying in the outskirts of Gibeah in the pomegranate cave8 at hMigron. The people who were with him were about isix hundred men, including jAhijah the son of Ahitub, kIchabod’s brother, son of Phinehas, son of Eli, the priest of the Lord lin Shiloh, mwearing an ephod. And the people did not know that Jonathan had gone. Within nthe passes, by which Jonathan sought to go over to the Philistine garrison, there was a rocky crag on the one side and a rocky crag on the other side. The name of the one was Bozez, and the name of the other Seneh. The one crag rose on the north in front of Michmash, and the other on the south in front of oGeba.

Jonathan said to the young man who carried his armor, Come, let us go over to the garrison of these puncircumcised. It may be that the Lord will work for us, qfor nothing can hinder the Lord from saving by many or by few. And his armor-bearer said to him, Do all that is in your heart. Do as you wish.9 Behold, I am with you heart and soul. Then Jonathan said, Behold, we will cross over to the men, and we will show ourselves to them. If they say to us, Wait until we come to you, then we will stand still in our place, and we will not go up to them. 10 But if they say, Come up to us, then we will go up, for the Lord has given them into our hand. And this shall be the sign to us. 11 So both of them showed themselves to the garrison of the Philistines. And the Philistines said, Look, Hebrews are coming rout of the holes where they have hidden themselves. 12 And the men of the garrison hailed Jonathan and his armor-bearer and said, Come up to us, and we will show you a thing. And Jonathan said to his armor-bearer, Come up after me, for the Lord has given them into the hand of Israel. 13 Then Jonathan climbed up on his hands and feet, and his armor-bearer after him. And they fell before Jonathan, and his armor-bearer killed them after him. 14 And that first strike, which Jonathan and his armor-bearer made, killed about twenty men within as it were half a furrow’s length in an acre10 of land. 15 And there was a panic in the camp, in the field, and among all the people. The garrison and even sthe raiders trembled, the earth quaked, and it became a very great panic.11

16 And the watchmen of Saul in Gibeah of Benjamin looked, and behold, the multitude twas dispersing here and there.12 17 Then Saul said to the people who were with him, Count and see who has gone from us. And when they had counted, behold, Jonathan and his armor-bearer were not there. 18 So Saul said to Ahijah, Bring the ark of God here. For the ark of God went at that time with the people13 of Israel. 19 Now uwhile Saul was talking to the priest, the tumult in the camp of the Philistines increased more and more. So Saul said to the priest, Withdraw your hand. 20 Then Saul and all the people who were with him rallied and went into the battle. And behold, vevery Philistine’s sword was against his fellow, and there was very great confusion. 21 Now the Hebrews who had been with the Philistines before that time and who had gone up with them into the camp, weven they also turned to be with the Israelites who were with Saul and Jonathan. 22 Likewise, when all the men of Israel xwho had hidden themselves yin the hill country of Ephraim heard that the Philistines were fleeing, they too followed hard after them in the battle. 23 zSo the Lord saved Israel that day. And the battle passed beyond aBeth-aven.

Saul’s Rash Vow

24 And the men of Israel had been hard pressed that day, bso Saul had laid an oath on the people, saying, Cursed be the man who eats food until it is evening and I am avenged on my enemies. So none of the people had tasted food. 25 Now when all the people14 came to the forest, behold, there was honey on the ground. 26 And when the people entered the forest, behold, the honey was dropping, but no one put his hand to his mouth, for the people feared the oath. 27 But Jonathan had not heard his father charge the people with the oath, cso he put out the tip of the staff that was in his hand and dipped it in the honeycomb and put his hand to his mouth, and his eyes became bright. 28 Then one of the people said, Your father strictly charged the people with an oath, saying, Cursed be the man who eats food this day. And the people were dfaint. 29 Then Jonathan said, My father has troubled the land. See how my eyes have become bright because I tasted a little of this honey. 30 How much better if the people had eaten freely today of the spoil of their enemies that they found. For now the defeat among the Philistines has not been great.

31 They struck down the Philistines that day from eMichmash to fAijalon. And the people were very dfaint. 32 The people gpounced on the spoil and took sheep and oxen and calves and slaughtered them on the ground. And the people ate them hwith the blood. 33 Then they told Saul, Behold, the people are sinning against the Lord by eating hwith the blood. And he said, You have dealt treacherously; roll a great stone to me here.15 34 And Saul said, Disperse yourselves among the people and say to them, Let every man bring his ox or his sheep and slaughter them here and eat, and do not sin against the Lord by eating with the blood. So every one of the people brought his ox with him that night and they slaughtered them there. 35 And Saul ibuilt an altar to the Lord; it was the first altar that he built to the Lord.

36 Then Saul said, Let us go down after the Philistines by night and plunder them until the morning light; let us not leave a man of them. And they said, Do whatever seems good to you. But jthe priest said, Let us draw near to God here. 37 And Saul inquired of God, Shall I go down after the Philistines? Will you give them into the hand of Israel? kBut he did not answer him that day. 38 And Saul said, Come here, all you leaders of the people, and know and see how this sin has arisen today. 39 For las the Lord lives who saves Israel, mthough it be in Jonathan my son, he shall surely die. But there was not a man among all the people who answered him. 40 Then he said to all Israel, You shall be on one side, and I and Jonathan my son will be on the other side. And the people said to Saul, Do what seems good to you. 41 Therefore Saul said, O Lord God of Israel, why have you not answered your servant this day? If this guilt is in me or in Jonathan my son, O Lord, God of Israel, give Urim. But if this guilt is in your people Israel, give Thummim.16 nAnd Jonathan and Saul were taken, but the people escaped. 42 Then Saul said, nCast the lot between me and my son Jonathan. And Jonathan was taken.

43 Then Saul said to Jonathan, oTell me what you have done. And Jonathan told him, pI tasted a little honey with the tip of the staff that was in my hand. Here I am; I will die. 44 And Saul said, qGod do so to me and more also; ryou shall surely die, Jonathan. 45 Then the people said to Saul, Shall Jonathan die, who has worked this great salvation in Israel? Far from it! lAs the Lord lives, sthere shall not one hair of his head fall to the ground, for he has worked with God this day. So the people ransomed Jonathan, so that he did not die. 46 Then Saul went up from pursuing the Philistines, and the Philistines went to their own place.

Saul Fights Israel’s Enemies

47 When Saul had taken the kingship over Israel, he fought against all his enemies on every side, against Moab, tagainst the Ammonites, against Edom, against the kings of uZobah, and against the Philistines. Wherever he turned he routed them. 48 And he did valiantly vand struck the Amalekites and delivered Israel out of the hands of those who plundered them.

49 wNow the sons of Saul were Jonathan, Ishvi, and Malchi-shua. And the names of his two daughters were these: the name of the firstborn was xMerab, and the name of the younger Michal. 50 And the name of Saul’s wife was Ahinoam the daughter of Ahimaaz. yAnd the name of the commander of his army was Abner the son of Ner, zSaul’s uncle. 51 aKish was the father of Saul, and Ner the father of Abner was the son of aAbiel.

52 There was hard fighting against the Philistines all the days of Saul. And when Saul saw any strong man, or any valiant man, bhe attached him to himself.

The Lord Rejects Saul

15 And Samuel said to Saul, cThe Lord sent me to anoint you king over his people Israel; now therefore listen to the words of the Lord. Thus says the Lord of hosts, I have noted what Amalek did to Israel din opposing them on the way when they came up out of Egypt. Now go and strike Amalek and edevote to destruction17 all that they have. Do not spare them, fbut kill both man and woman, child and infant, ox and sheep, camel and donkey.

So Saul summoned the people and numbered them in Telaim, two hundred thousand men on foot, and ten thousand men of Judah. And Saul came to the city of Amalek and lay in wait in the valley. Then Saul said to gthe Kenites, Go, depart; go down from among the Amalekites, lest I destroy you with them. hFor you showed kindness to all the people of Israel when they came up out of Egypt. So the Kenites departed from among the Amalekites. iAnd Saul defeated the Amalekites from jHavilah as far as kShur, which is east of Egypt. And he took Agag the king of the Amalekites alive land devoted to destruction all the people with the edge of the sword. mBut Saul and the people spared Agag and the best of the sheep and of the oxen and of the fattened calves18 and the lambs, and all that was good, and would not utterly destroy them. All that was despised and worthless they devoted to destruction.

10 The word of the Lord came to Samuel: 11 nI regret19 that I have made Saul king, for he has turned back from following me and ohas not performed my commandments. And Samuel was angry, and he cried to the Lord all night. 12 And Samuel rose early to meet Saul in the morning. And it was told Samuel, Saul came to pCarmel, and behold, he set up a monument for himself and turned and passed on and went down to Gilgal. 13 And Samuel came to Saul, and Saul said to him, qBlessed be you to the Lord. I have performed the commandment of the Lord. 14 And Samuel said, What then is this bleating of the sheep in my ears and the lowing of the oxen that I hear? 15 Saul said, They have brought them from the Amalekites, rfor the people spared the best of the sheep and of the oxen to sacrifice to the Lord your God, and the rest we have devoted to destruction. 16 Then Samuel said to Saul, Stop! I will tell you what the Lord said to me this night. And he said to him, Speak.

17 And Samuel said, sThough you are little in your own eyes, are you not the head of the tribes of Israel? The Lord anointed you king over Israel. 18 And the Lord sent you on a mission and said, Go, devote to destruction the sinners, the Amalekites, and fight against them until they are consumed. 19 Why then did you not obey the voice of the Lord? tWhy did you pounce on the spoil and do what was evil in the sight of the Lord? 20 And Saul said to Samuel, uI have obeyed the voice of the Lord. I have gone on the mission on which the Lord sent me. I have brought Agag the king of Amalek, and I have devoted the Amalekites to destruction. 21 vBut the people took of the spoil, sheep and oxen, the best of the things devoted to destruction, to sacrifice to the Lord your God in Gilgal. 22 And Samuel said,

wHas the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices,

as in obeying the voice of the Lord?

Behold, xto obey is better than sacrifice,

and to listen than the fat of rams.

23  For rebellion is as the sin of divination,

and presumption is as iniquity and yidolatry.

Because zyou have rejected the word of the Lord,

ahe has also rejected you from being king.

24 Saul said to Samuel, bI have sinned, for I have transgressed the commandment of the Lord and your words, because I feared the people and obeyed their voice. 25 Now therefore, please pardon my sin and creturn with me that I may bow before the Lord. 26 And Samuel said to Saul, I will not return with you. dFor you have rejected the word of the Lord, eand the Lord has rejected you from being king over Israel. 27 fAs Samuel turned to go away, Saul seized the skirt of his robe, and it tore. 28 And Samuel said to him, gThe Lord has torn the kingdom of Israel from you this day and has given it to a neighbor of yours, who is better than you. 29 And also the Glory of Israel hwill not lie or have regret, for he is not a man, that he should have regret. 30 Then he said, I have sinned; yet ihonor me now before the elders of my people and before Israel, jand return with me, that I may bow before the Lord your God. 31 So Samuel turned back after Saul, and Saul bowed before the Lord.

32 Then Samuel said, Bring here to me Agag the king of the Amalekites. And Agag came to him cheerfully.20 Agag said, Surely the bitterness of death is past. 33 And Samuel said, kAs your sword has made women childless, so shall your mother be childless among women. And Samuel hacked Agag to pieces before the Lord lin Gilgal.

34 Then Samuel went mto Ramah, and Saul went up to his house in nGibeah of Saul. 35 oAnd Samuel did not see Saul again until the day of his death, pbut Samuel grieved over Saul. qAnd the Lord regretted that he had made Saul king over Israel.


Great Is Your Steadfast Love

iA Prayer of David.

86  jIncline your ear, O Lord, and answer me,

for I am kpoor and needy.

Preserve my life, for I am lgodly;

save your servant, who mtrusts in youyou are my God.

nBe gracious to me, O Lord,

for to you do I cry all the day.

Gladden the soul of your servant,

for oto you, O Lord, do I lift up my soul.

For you, O Lord, are good and pforgiving,

qabounding in steadfast love to all who call upon you.

rGive ear, O Lord, to my prayer;

listen to my plea for grace.

In sthe day of my trouble I call upon you,

tfor you answer me.

There is unone like you among the gods, O Lord,

vnor are there any works like yours.

wAll the nations you have made shall come

and worship before you, O Lord,

and shall glorify your name.

10  For xyou are great and ydo wondrous things;

zyou alone are God.

11  aTeach me your way, O Lord,

that I may bwalk in your truth;

cunite my heart to fear your name.

12  I give thanks to you, O Lord my God, with my whole heart,

and I will glorify your name forever.

13  dFor great is your steadfast love toward me;

you have edelivered my soul from the depths of Sheol.

14  O God, insolent men have frisen up against me;

a band of ruthless men seeks my life,

and they do not set you before them.

15  But you, O Lord, are a God gmerciful and gracious,

slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness.

16  hTurn to me and be gracious to me;

give your strength to iyour servant,

and save ithe son of your maidservant.

17  jShow me a sign of your kfavor,

that those who hate me may see and be put to shame

because you, Lord, have helped me and comforted me.